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Volume 11, Issue 39 (4-2022)                   Haft Hesar J Environ Stud 2022, 11(39): 5-24 | Back to browse issues page

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Rahmatizadeh A, Soltanzadeh H, Etesam I, Mokhtabad Amrei S M. Comparative comparison of the Decorations of tombs of the Islamic era in the provinces of Guilan and Mazandaran with respect to the influence of cultural factors. Haft Hesar J Environ Stud 2022; 11 (39) :5-24
URL: http://hafthesar.iauh.ac.ir/article-1-1606-en.html
Abstract:   (616 Views)
Arrays have been a definite part of Islamic architecture, like Islamic tombs whose array is part of their architecture. On the other hand, in Gilan and Mazandaran provinces, Islamic tombs have their own shape in terms of architecture-related layout, and from one part to another in these two provinces, there are differences in the layout of Islamic tombs, so the main purpose of this study Cognition and analysis of the array of Islamic tombs in the provinces of Gilan and Mazandaran is due to the impact of cultural factors and these questions are raised that the array of tombs in the provinces of Gilan and Mazandaran have what characteristics and what cultural factors are effective in their formation ? The research method in this research is descriptive-analytical and data evaluation has been done through comparative comparison. The selection of samples is based on the common shape of tombs from the west of Gilan to the east of Mazandaran and in general based on historical and geographical records and the selection of samples in these two provinces in this study is divided into four sections. It should be noted that in terms of antiquity, the samples have a long history, most of which were rebuilt in the old form in the Qajar period, and in fact a continuation of a form from the past, and this is due to moisture and consequently high erosion in this area. In this regard, the common examples of West Gilan belong to the Qajar period and the common examples of East Gilan belong to the Safavid period and most of the Qajar, and the common examples in the west and east of Mazandaran belong to the Timurid and Qajar periods. The results show that the cultural factors that are the religious and customary customs and beliefs of the society here have caused differences in the array of Islamic tombs in these two provinces, so that in western Gilan due to Sunni religion and pastoral livelihood simple tombs with walls Mesh and sloping ceilings are popular and their main array is related to knotting wooden lattice walls and carving on the capitals of small porches of the building period and burial box. While in East Gilan, due to the spread of Shiite religion and was of great importance, religious figures and religious ceremonies, tombs with closed burial chambers and large porches on one to four sides, as well as more details and arrays are common, and the main array These tombs can be seen in wood carvings on the body of columns, capitals and lintels, as well as doors and chests, which shows the public belief in these elements in the tombs. Also, wooden knot arrays with regular geometric designs can be seen in elements such as shrines and skylights. In addition, due to Shiite culture and religious beliefs, murals with religious themes are other arrays of tombs in East Gilan. In the western part of Mazandaran, the tombs with porches related to the Qajar period are similar to the tombs of East Gilan in terms of array and the factors of formation of arrays, with the difference that there is no mural array in them; In addition, due to the direct connection of Mazandaran with the center of Iran and also the custom of the community, tower tombs, which were mostly related to the Timurid period, were common in Mazandaran, but in western Mazandaran due to its distance from the center of Marashian Shiite rule Rarely seen in the architecture and array of tower tombs; But in the east of Mazandaran, the tower tombs are more majestic and luxurious, and in general, most of their arrays can be seen structurally and in the transition to the dome. They are porches and are similar to the west of Mazandaran in terms of array and the impact of culture on them.
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Type of Study: Research |
Received: 2020/09/29 | Accepted: 2021/09/13 | Published: 2022/04/30

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